World of Greyhawk Timeline
This is a fictional timeline of the World of Greyhawk campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. All dates use the Common Year (CY) reckoning established by the Great Kingdom of Aerdy.
The following terms are sometimes used to describe eras in the history of eastern Oerik:
- The Age before Ages, constituting the early history of the multiverse, when the forces of Law battled primal Chaos.
- The Epoch of Magic (presumably including all of known history prior to 576 CY but definitely ending some time before 998 CY).
- The Age of Glory (Suel dominance).
- The Age of Great Sorrow (decline of the Great Kingdom of Aerdy).
- The Age of Worms (the Waiting Age, a time of death, decay and writhing doom that lurks in the shadows of every tomorrow).
The Roll of Years
A summary of historical events follows.
- Sometime before this point in time the city that will one day be called Exag is abandoned by the race of Crafters. (DNG#145 "Exag, City of Clay" p. 49)
- The Tiamat-worshipping Ur-Flan civilization of Caerdiralor rises on the Dragonshead Peninsula. They engage in a war of extermination with the dwarves and gnomes of the Headlands. 
- Caerdiralor's capital, Myrsyrna is devastated in a sudden catastrophe. The surviving elite flee across the Sea of Gearnat, landing on the coast of the grasslands that are now the Bright Desert. Unable to escape through the Abbor Alz and hunted by the native nomadic Flan horse tribes, the refugees are driven into hiding. 
- The Flan people spread across the Flanaess. In what is now northwestern Perrenland, a Flan tribe led by a powerful warlord named Exag, fleeing a horde of hostile lizardfolk, stumble upon a city that was built by the Crafters. An old woman in the tribe, Prizin'ha, wins the day by sacrificing herself at the top of one of the Crafter pyramids, summoning an army of earth elementals that defeat the lizardfolk. The city is renamed after Exag. (DNG#145 "Exag, City of Clay" p. 49)
- Under the tutoring of the semi-divine Vathris, the six tribes of the region that will one day be the Bright Desert form six kingdoms – Durha, Itar, Sulm, Ronhass, Rhugha, and Truun. The Sulm, influenced by the remnants of the refugee dark priests of Caerdiralor, begin conquering their neighbors and rises as a power. ("Places of Mystery: Dominions of the Flannae" - , DNG#98 "Into the Bright Desert", Rary the Traitor, Blight on Bright Sands Sourcebook, LGJ#03 "Blood of Heroes" p.15)
- The Kingdom of Sulm begins to decline.
- A sudden, unexplained disease causes the koprus' kopura food source to diminish. (DRA#354)
- Shattados, last King of Sulm, receives the Scorpion Crown from Tharizdun. The crown turns Shattados into a gigantic scorpion, and his people into manscorpions and dune stalkers. Its use begins transforming the grasslands of Sulm into the Bright Desert. (WGR3.15,22; POLY#157.22; "Dominions of the Flannae")
- Sulm's transformation into the Bright Desert complete. ("Dominions of the Flannae")
- Most of the undersea city-states of the kopru are destroyed by war and strife. (DRA#354)
- Lyzandred born in a small town in the ancient Baklunish lands, probably relatively close to the Suel borderlands. (Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad 2)
- Lyzandred discovers a portal to a demiplane closely aligned to Oerth and transforms it into a storehouse of magical objects best kept from evil hands. (Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad 2)
- Lyzandred, trapped in his private demiplane, finally succumbs to death and becomes a lich. (Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad 2)
- Beginning of the Baklunish-Suloise Wars. (Guide 9)
- First employment of humanoid mercenaries. (Guide 9)
- Suloise Mages of Power call down the Invoked Devastation upon the Baklunish. In retaliation, Baklunish spellcasters bring down the Rain of Colorless Fire upon the Suloise Imperium, transforming the empire in the Sea of Dust. (Guide 9)
- Surviving Baklunish migrate north to the shores of the Dramidj Ocean. (Player's Guide to Greyhawk 9)
- Foundation of the Kingdom of Aerdy. (Guide 9)
- Battle of a Fortnight's Length. The Kingdom of Aerdy defeats Nyrondal cavalry squadrons to become the regional superpower. Aerdy thereafter becomes known as the Great Kingdom. (Guide 9)
- The Common Year is established as the system of reckoning by Grand Prince Nasran I of the Great Kingdom of Aerdy in 645 OR (1 CY), when he declares universal peace throughout his the land, and takes the title of Overking. At this stage the borders of the Great Kingdom of Aerdy extend all the way to the City of Greyhawk. (Guide 9)
- The lich Lyzandred uses a potent spell to pull a giant meteor into Oerth's atmosphere. The resulting fireball streaks across the Oljatt Sea, where it is noted by the astronomer Selvor the Younger (among others), who interprets it as an omen presaging "wealth, strife and a living death." The resulting impact in the eastern Abbor-Alz sends shockwaves far and wide, interrupting an experiment by a cadre of Suel wizards at the Star Cairns, in the Cairn Hills. (Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad 2)
- The Shattering of Borka, in which a planet in Greyspace is destroyed by elves with the assistance from their deities, is witnessed by astrologers on Oerth. (Dragon Annual #1)
- The Order of the Knight Protectors of the Great Kingdom is shaken by Sir Kargoth’s pact with Demogorgon, when he unleashes a demonic terror upon the Great Kingdom. The abomination is destroyed, but Kargoth sways thirteen other Knight Protectors to follow him. They become the first of the death knights.
- Age of Great Sorrow commences. (Guide 9)
- Zagig and his adventuring band delve the Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad. Zagig remains for a short time to learn at the lich's feet and gains inspiration that will aid him well in the later construction of his masterpiece, Castle Greyhawk. (Crypt of Lyzandred the Mad 2)
- Zagig Yragerne, Murlynd, Keoghtom, and the rest of the Company of Seven explore the Flan ruins of Veralos. (Dragon #293.90)
- Mixed Oerid-Baklunish nomads gradually move into and claim the steppeland east of the Yatil Mountains, pushing eastward as far as the Griffs. (Guide 9)
- Outer dependencies of Aerdy gain sovereignty. Perranders, Velunians, Furyondians, and Tenhas each establish independence in a series of minor but bloody wars. (Guide 9)
- Keolandish armies press into Ket and Veluna, but are later forced out. (Player's Guide to Greyhawk 10)
- Kingdom of Nyrond established when junior branch of Aerdy House Rax-Nyrond declares itself independent of Great Kingdom rule. (Guide 9, 10)
- Invasion of northern barbarians into North Province prevents the Great Kingdom from retributive action against Nyrond.
- Theocracy of the Pale and Urnst also secede from Great Kingdom.
- Kingdom of Keoland at peak. (Guide 9)
- Celene forces under the command of Triserron, Yolande's consort, best Keoish forces in a number of short engagements. Celene achieves full independence, Yolande elevated to queen of Celene. (LGG, 39-40). Note: conflicts with 461 CY.
- Halmadar the Cruel, a Shield Lands warlord, gains the Hand and Eye of Vecna, conquers the region near Delcombon, and lays siege to Critwall. Ultimately he is drugged by his followers and interred alive in the Kron Hills.
- Turmoil Between Crowns. Scions of the Celestial House of Naelax destroy the House of Rax to assume the Malachite Throne and rulership of the Great Kingdom. (Guide 9, Player's Guide to Greyhawk 10)
- Keoland and Furyondy go to war, resulting in the secession of the Keolandish regions of Gran March, Bissel and the Yeomanry.
- Excessive taxation and repression leads to a general rebellion in the southern Great Kingdom. This event leads to the foundation of the Iron League. (Guide 9, Player's Guide to Greyhawk 10)
- Rise of the Sea Princes. (Guide 9)
- Assassination of nearly all of the House of Rax. Ivid I who accedes to Malachite Throne.
- Might of Iuz grows. Humanoid invasions become common. (Guide 9)
- The Cairn Hills town of Diamond Lake hosts an order of monks, preoccupied with astronomy, at the Diamond Lake Observatory. (Dungeon #124.40, 63)
- The City of Greyhawk nationalizes the Cairn Hills smelting trade. (Dungeon #124.62)
- County of Urnst becomes palatinate under the Duchy of Urnst. Greyhawk becomes a free city. (Guide 9)
- Obmi is granted his freedom by king Snurre Ironbelly, and continues to serve as an advisor to the fire giant king.
- Bone March falls to humanoids. (Guide 9)
- The River of Blood murders are stopped after Robilar and Yrag confront Bluto Sans Pite. The two are ennobled soon after.
- Evil forces construct a small chapel outside the village of Nulb, in the Viscounty of Verbobonc. The chapel grows to become the Temple of Elemental Evil.
- Iuz is inadvertently freed from imprisonment below Castle Greyhawk by Robilar and Riggby.
- After the accidental freeing, good-aligned troops raze Robilar's estate, driving the fighter into exile.
- Scarlet Brotherhood first reported on the Tilvanot Peninsula. (Guide 9, Player's Guide to Greyhawk 10)
- Prince of Furyondy/Provost of Veluna kidnapped. (Guide 9)
- The Savant-Sage completes the Guide to the World of Greyhawk. (Guide 9)
- The plague known as the Red Death sweeps across the Flanaess.
- Events of The Temple of Elemental Evil.
- Events of Queen of the Spiders.
- Events of Vecna Lives!.
- A series of regional conflicts erupts into the continent-wide battle that eventually becomes the Greyhawk Wars.
- The war is sparked when Iuz, masquerading as a god named Vatun, incites the Northern Barbarians into war against Stonefist, conquering it quickly. The leader of the Fists, Sevvord Redbeard, soon allies himself with Iuz. (From the Ashes 6)
- The Second Unhuman War reaches Greyspace. An invading fleet of scro Mantis ships link up with the Borka Retribution Fleet and battle with the elven Imperial Fleet based on Greela. (Dragon Annual #1, page 46)
- Before a planned assault on Ratik, the Northern Barbarians mutiny, refusing to fight any further for a "god" they have lost faith in. (From the Ashes 6)
- Iuz returns to his homeland to restructure his nation and replace Furyondy nobles in his dominion with demons and other fiends.
- Armies of Iuz conquer the Horned Society, creating a mass slaughter in the capital of Molag. (From the Ashes 6; Greyhawk Wars Adventurer's Book)
- The Shield Lands refuse an offer of alliance with Furyondy, and are soon overrun by Iuz's forces. The Bandit Kingdoms fall to Iuz in the same offensive. Lord Holmer, leader of the Knights of Holy Shielding is captured and taken to Dorakaa. (From the Ashes 6)
- Battle of Critwall Bridge results in victory for Furyondy, securing the eastern borders of the realm against Iuz. Soon after, Furyondy's northern border collapses under an assault from Iuz-allied humanoids attacking from the Vesve Forest. Crockport falls, and Chendl, Furyondy's capital, is placed under siege. (From the Ashes 6)
- Nyrond moves against the Hold of Stonefist, striking first in the Phostwood, but staying close to the borders of the kingdom. (From the Ashes 7)
- At the same time, the Great Kingdom attacks on a broad front against the Theocracy of the Pale, Almor and Nyrond. Almor is conquered in short order. (From the Ashes 6)
- The Iron League enters into alliance negotiations with Nyrond, even weathering the defection of the Lordship of the Isles to the Scarlet Brotherhood. (From the Ashes 7)
- Keoland, Gran March, the Ulek States and the Yeomanry enter into the Treaty of Niole Dra, a mutual-defense pact and military alliance. (From the Ashes 7)
- Turrosh Mak of the Pomarj attacks the Wild Coast and Ulek. His forces are stopped at the Battle of the Pass of Celene by a coalition of humanoid warriors. (From the Ashes 7)
- Renewed giant and evil humanoid raids hit the Grand Duchy of Geoff, Sterich, and the Yeomanry. Geoff and Sterich are conquered by the invaders. (From the Ashes 7)
- The Battle of Innspa marks the peak of the Aerdy invasion of Nyrond. The battle results in a decisive defeat of the Great Kingdom's armies. Mass executions follow, ordered by Ivid V. (unbeknownst to much of the Flanaess, Ivid murders loyal generals and turns them into undead servants. Ivid is subsequently assassinated by remaining generals and rises as an undead animus by priests of Hextor.) Mass killings of the Aerdy populace instigated by Ivid. (From the Ashes' 8)
- The Scarlet Brotherhood begins campaign of assassinations in Iron League states with an aim to destabilize their governments. Cobb Darg of the Free City of Irongate orders the execution of every known Scarlet Brotherhood agent within the city. (From the Ashes 9)
- The Wars end with a Brotherhood-inspired general peace treaty, the Pact of Greyhawk in the month of Harvester. (From the Ashes 9)
- Prince Sewarndt attempts to seize the throne of Nyrond from his father, King Archibold III. The plot is foiled by Sewarndt's brother, Lynwerd.
- The Great Kingdom comes to an effective end, as it splinters into two major states (The United Kingdom of Ahlissa and the North Kingdom of Aerdy) and numerous minor states. Ivid V, the Overking, rules Rauxes as essentially a no-man's land.
- The priesthood of Hextor officially deposes Ivid V as Overking.
- Canon Hazen of Veluna causes the "Flight of Fiends" through use of the Crook of Rao. Most (but not all) evil-aligned outsiders are banished from the Flanaess.
- Vecna escapes the Demiplane of Dread; fails in his attempt to become a greater power (events of Die Vecna Die!).
- Hand of Vecna resurfaces in the central Flanaess, in the possession of a Vecnan priest named Darl Quethos. (Dungeon #132)
- Riggby the Patriarch dies in Verbobonc. His body is returned to the Free City of Greyhawk for his funeral. (Expedition to the Ruins of Greyhawk)
- Iuz attempts to invade the Free City, via the dungeons of Castle Greyhawk. (Expedition to the Ruins of Greyhawk)
- Although unbeknownst to most, Lord Robilar is returned to Oerth after an absence of 15 years. (Expedition to the Ruins of Greyhawk)
- Last year of the Living Greyhawk campaign.
- The dwarf hero Borgazdin Broadhammer begins a reunification of scattered dwarven houses that will become known as the Dwarven Resurgence. Under his guidance, the dwarves make the first technological breakthroughs that lead to the Age of Industry. (Dragon #277)
- Pluffet Smedger the Elder examines a centuries-old copy of volume 3 of Catalogue of the Land Flanaess, being the Eastern Part of the Continent of Oerik, of Oerth, by the Savant-Sage of Greyhawk. This volume, entitled A Guide to the World of Greyhawk, is discovered in the library of the Royal University of Rel Mord. Smedger is impressed by the Guide's freshness and thoroughness. (Glossography 2)
- In this era, magic is not a lost art, but apparently a fading one. (Glossography 2)
- Pluffet Smedger the Elder publishes his Glossography for the Guide to the World of Greyhawk at the Royal University of Rel Mord. (Glossography cover)
- Countess Belissica and Duke Karll marry, uniting the County of Urnst and the Duchy of Urnst into the United Counties of Urnst, also known as the U.C.U. Eventually this nation expands to encompass the Domain of Greyhawk, the Shield Lands, the Adri Forest, the Bright Desert, the Celadon Forest, Rel Deven, and Nyrond. (Dragon #277)
- The dwarven Citicar is introduced, becoming the bestselling automobile on Oerth that year and every subsequent year. (Dragon #277)
- The dimensional accelerator rifle is manufactured throughout the human lands of the New Flanaess. (Dragon #277)
- A mishap with a dimensional accelerator chute results in a crash, killing 20 of the 115 people aboard. (Dragon #277)
- Athans, Philip. "Greyhawk 2000." Dragon #277. Renton, WA: Wizards of the Coast, 2000.
- Broadhurst, Creighton. "Dominions of the Flannae." Renton, WA: Wizards of the Coast, 2008. Available online: 
- Holian, Gary, Erik Mona, Sean K. Reynolds, and Frederick Weining. Living Greyhawk Gazetteer. Renton, WA: Wizards of the Coast, 2000.
- Leati, Tito. "The Ecology of the Kopru." Dragon #354. Bellevue, WA: Paizo Publishing, 2007.
- Moore, Roger E. "The Scro: A SPELLJAMMER monster for grounding campaigns." Dragon Annual #1. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, 1996.
- Wilson, Steve. "Greychrondex." Available online: