A collection of thoughts and insights on the lands beyond the Flanaess for would-be explorers...
Notes on the Continents of Oerth
(Used with Permission. Do not repost without obtaining prior permission from the author.)
Western Oerik: The Baklunish nations continue beyond the sultanate of Zeif, and it is there that we find the Arabic cultures of the Oerth. To the south and far west of Oerik exist a culture founded on a massive empire that would dwarf Aerdy at its height, that has existed for thousands of years and continued to rule much of this part of the land, in a manner similar to the Romans. Barbarians and lesser feudal kingdoms fight them for dominance, making the place lively indeed.
A desert culture famous for its bizarre sacrificial rituals and worship of animal-headed gods exists to the south. All this could, of course, be supplemented by Skip Williams's article in DRAGON, though I have not seen it and thus know little of what exists there.
Hepmonaland: Savages exist only in the northernmost point of the continent. Greater cultures similar to those of South America war with those cultures similar to the advanced black African civilzations of the Middle Ages. It is important to note that, having had contact with jungle gnomes and dwarves in the mountains, these cultures have learned metalworking, as has every non-primitive culture in the world, due to their contact with demihumans. Humanoids are also advanced to a more civilized extent with their own proper nations than their kin in the Flanaess.
The unnamed Oriental continent is divided into two warring elements-an ancient empire that has existed for thousands of years and seen several dynasties rise and fall, and the cultures around it, who have been under the rule of the empire at various points, but always managed to regain their freedom. Humanoids are prominent members of the imperial society, while demihumans have a culture that would be considered alien to their kin in the rest of the world.
The fourth continent (NOT Hyboria, that's an unofficial fifth continent IMO-the North and South Poles of Oerth are not considered continents in the same way as the North Pole in the real world) is entirely my own vision. Originally the site of some very primitive cultures, the place was profoundly affected when massive gates were opened by Touv, Suel and demihumans fleeing the great upheaveals of the Twin Cataclysms. They profoundly transformed the savage world into a strange continent almost unknown to the peoples of the Flanaess.